The sexes in sea anemones are separate in some species, while other species are sequential hermaphrodites, changing sex at some stage in their life. In sexual reproduction, males may release sperm to stimulate females to release eggs, and fertilization occurs, either internally in the gastrovascular cavity or in the water column. The eggs and sperm, or the larvae, are ejected through the mouth.
Sea anemones have great powers of regeneration and can reproduce asexually, by budding, fragmentation, or by longitudinal or crosswise binary fission. Some species divide longitudinally, pulling themselves apart, resulting in groups of individuals with identical colouring and markings. Some species can also reproduce by pedal laceration. In this process, a ring of material may break off from the pedal disc at the base of the column which then fragments, the pieces regenerating into new clonal individuals. Alternatively, fragments detach separately as the animal creeps across a surface.
Oron Catts and Ionat Zurr
Tissue Culture & Art Project
SymbioticA, The Centre for Excellence in Biological Arts
School of Human Sciences + School of Design
The University of Western Australia